Armed with a long-barrelled weapon, the attacker shot a police officer before storming the elite Reina club in the Ortakoy area of the city at about 1.45am.
The Israeli foreign ministry says an Israeli woman is among those who were killed. She was named as Leanne Nasser, 19. She was reportedly in the club with three friends.
Moroccans, Libyans, Lebanese and Saudis are also among the victims,according to Turkish family minister Fatma Betul Sayan Kaya, quoted by a Turkish news agency.
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Three Lebanese citizens were wounded, including the daughter of a member of parliament, according to the Lebanese foreign ministry.
Turkish authorities are starting to uncover evidence about the attack but there is no clarity yet on who was responsible, Turkish Prime Minister Binali Yildirim said.